Noor Fadel Abd Hussein

Department of Hebrew,

 College of Languages,

 University of Baghdad,

 Baghdad, Iraq


Maysaa Jabar Sada Naser

Department Of Hebrew,

College Of Languages,

University Of Baghdad,

Baghdad, Iraq



This research paper presents an analytical study of politeness theory in political discourse, using Yair Lapid, a prominent political figure, as an exemplar. The study aims to explore the strategic use of politeness in political communication and its implications for public perception. The research is rooted in Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory, alongside other relevant politeness frameworks. The methodology involves a qualitative analysis of select speeches and communication instances from Yair Lapid’s political career. The findings reveal how politeness is employed strategically in his discourse, shaping his image as a politician. A comparison with other politicians provides insights into the distinct politeness strategies utilized by different political figures. The study contributes to understanding the role of politeness in political communication and its broader impact on society and politics. However, it acknowledges limitations and suggests areas for further research. This research enriches the discourse on political communication and holds implications for enhancing political discourse in diverse contexts.

KEYWORDS: Politeness theory, Yair Lapid, Cultural variations & Effective governance.


   استراتيجيات التأدب الايجابي و السلبي في خطابات يائير لابيد – دراسة تداولية

نور فاضل عبد الحسين

قسم اللغة العبرية، كلية اللغات، جامعة بغداد، بغداد، العراق

ميساء جبار سادة

قسم اللغة العبرية، كلية اللغات، جامعة بغداد،بغداد، العراق


تسلط هذا الدراسة الضوء على نظرية التأدب في الخطاب السياسي، مستخدمة يائير لابيد، الشخصية السياسية البارزة، كنموذج. تهدف الدراسة إلى استكشاف الاستخدام الاستراتيجي للتأدب في الاتصال السياسي وآثاره على الإدراك العام. البحث متجذر في نظرية التأدب لبراون وليفنسون ، إلى جانب أطر التأدب الأخرى ذات الصلة. تتضمن المنهجية تحليلا نوعيا لخطب مختارة وحالات اتصال من الحياة السياسية ليائير لابيد. تكشف النتائج كيف يتم استخدام التأدب بشكل استراتيجي في خطابه ، وتشكيل صورته كسياسي. توفر المقارنة مع السياسيين الآخرين نظرة ثاقبة لاستراتيجيات التأدب المتميزة التي تستخدمها الشخصيات السياسية المختلفة. تساهم الدراسة في فهم دور التأدب في الاتصال السياسي وتأثيره الأوسع على المجتمع والسياسة. ومع ذلك ، فإنه يعترف بالقيود ويقترح مجالات لمزيد من البحث. يثري هذا البحث الخطاب حول التواصل السياسي ويحمل تداعيات لتعزيز الخطاب السياسي في سياقات متنوعة.

الكلمات المفتاحية: نظرية اللباقة، يائير لابيد، الاختلافات الثقافية والحكم الفعال.


Political discourse is an integral aspect of democratic societies, serving as a critical medium through which politicians convey their ideas, policies, and visions to the public (David W Johnson, Civil Political Discourse in a Democracy: The Contribution of Psychology, 2000). In the realm of political communication, the strategic use of language plays a pivotal role in shaping public perception and influencing the outcomes of elections and policy debates (Obeng, 2019). Among the various linguistic tools employed by politicians, politeness theory emerges as an intriguing lens through which to analyze the dynamics of political discourse. The shifting political language of the world is taken into account while analyzing political discourse (Chilton, 2004).

This study examines how politeness theory might be used to political communication, highlighting the case of Yair Lapid, a significant actor in modern politics, according to Britannica (britannica, 2023), The complicated ways people handle their social interactions to keep face and manage interpersonal relationships are highlighted by the politeness theory, as developed by sociolinguists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson  (Alabdali, 2019), according to (Abbas N. , 2009)  Politeness is an important component of a politician’s communication style since politicians frequently use certain linguistic methods in the political sphere to present themselves favorably and appeal to a variety of audiences (Safwat, 2015).

There are two goals for this study. Firstly, it seeks to analyze how politeness theory is employed by Yair Lapid in his political discourse, discerning the strategic linguistic choices that underpin his speeches and public communication. By undertaking an in-depth examination of Lapid’s discourse, this research aims to identify recurring politeness strategies and understand their intended effects on the audience.

Secondly, this study aims to situate Yair Lapid’s politeness practices within a broader political context. To achieve this, a comparison will be drawn between Lapid’s communication style and that of other prominent politicians. Such a comparative analysis will shed light on the individuality of politeness strategies adopted by politicians and their implications for political discourse.

Understanding politeness theory’s role in political communication is vital not only for comprehending the nuances of political rhetoric but also for discerning the impact of such discourse on public perception and political culture (Gorelick, 2019). By exploring the relationship between politeness and political communication (N Karniawati, 2020)), this research aspires to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in political linguistics and communication studies (Dijk, 1997).

The following sections of the article will give a thorough literature analysis and go into the fundamental ideas of politeness theory and how it is used in political settings. The research methodology will describe the strategy adopted to examine and understand Yair Lapid’s speeches and communication instances, and the theoretical framework will establish the foundation for the analysis of Lapid’s political discourse.

This study explores political communication dynamics and politeness’s strategic role in shaping discourse. It contributes to understanding language’s role in politics and society, emphasizing the significance of politeness theory in political discourse.

literature review

Literature review explores scholarly work on politeness theory in political discourse, examining concepts, frameworks, and political communication.

  1. Politeness Theory and the Role It Functions in Political Discourse:

A sociolinguistic concept called politeness theory, which was first put forth by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson in 1978 (Kamal & Abdul-Majeed, 2009), examines how people manage face-saving tactics when communicating. Face, according to (El-Samir, 2014) relates to one’s social identity and the need to be respected and valued in social interactions. The use of politeness theory can provide insightful information about how politicians carefully control their language to keep face and favorable perceptions in the political sphere, where image and reputation are vital (Kamal & Abdul-Majeed, 2009).

  1. The Role of Politeness in Political Communication:

According to studies, civility is a crucial strategy for politicians to establish relationship with voters and promote trust. Politicians can project a favorable image of themselves and their policies by speaking politely and treating people with respect (Madya Asgher & Sadia, 2020). However, rude or combative language can harm a politician’s reputation and turn off potential supporters.

  1. Politeness Strategies in Political Speeches:

Researchers have analyzed political speeches to identify politeness strategies employed by politicians. These strategies may include positive politeness (Saba Sadia, 2020;), where politicians use compliments and praise to create a sense of solidarity with their audience, and negative politeness, where they use indirect language to avoid imposing on the audience’s autonomy (Emmanuel Njuki, 2021). Additionally, politicians may use off-record strategies to hint at their intentions without explicitly stating them, allowing for plausible deniability.

  1. Gender and Politeness in Political Discourse:

Some studies have explored how gender influences the use of politeness in political communication. Female politicians, in particular, may face unique challenges in navigating the balance between assertiveness and politeness due to gender stereotypes and expectations. Understanding gendered politeness in politics can shed light on the barriers and opportunities faced by women in political leadership roles (Nurseitova Khalidaa, 2012).

  1. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Political Politeness:

Political communication varies across cultures, and so does the expression of politeness. Cross-cultural studies have examined how politeness norms differ in different political contexts and how politicians adjust their communication style when interacting with diverse audiences (Maha, 2014).

6- possibility of applying the theory.

Title: Application of Leech (1983) and Brown and Levinson (1987) Theories in Synge’s Play “Riders to the Sea” (Politeness Theories in Synge’s Riders to the Sea, 2015)

“Riders to the Sea” by John Millington Synge is a classic play that sheds light on the lives of inhabitants in the remote Irish islands. This research examines the application of Leech, Brown, and Levinson’s theories in the play “Riders to the Sea.” It examines the relationship between these theories and how they are embodied in the characters and how each character deals with these principles to represent the play’s events. The study employs an analytical approach to study the language and application of these theories, focusing on various characters and their interactions. The results are expected to reveal a strong relationship between the theories and how the characters embody them in the play.

  1. Pragmatics and the Speech Act Theory:

 The study ” Pragmatics and Speech Act – History, Importance, and Stages of Development” (Noor Fadhel Abid, 2022)

This study examines Pragmatics and the Speech Act Theory in Hebrew, focusing on their significance in decoding linguistic messages. The “Speech Act Theory” is the foundation of Pragmatics, reflecting social culture, societal standards, and morals. Analyzing political speeches, sacred texts, and narratives in Hebrew stories provides insights into how language conveys meaning and intent in diverse cultural and social settings. This research contributes to existing knowledge on the development of Pragmatics and the Speech Act Theory, offering a deeper understanding of the intricate dynamics of communication in the Hebrew language and beyond.

  1. how does politeness influence direct or indirect forms.

The stud about this subject” A Review of Previous Studies on Postgraduate Students’ Awareness of Pragmatic Aspects” (Rana Yousif Abdulateef, 2023)

This review explores postgraduate students’ awareness of pragmatic aspects, including Grice Maxims, Politeness, and direct and indirect speech. Pragmatics, a linguistic field, emphasizes effective communication through context and background knowledge. Studies investigate students’ perceptions and application of these maxims, and how adherence to or violation of Grice’s Maxims influences their indirect speech acts or hedging strategies. Further research can enhance students’ pragmatic competence.

  1. The principle of Politeness in the past and present.

Politeness principle in the covenant of Imam Ali (peace be upon him)

which is send to Malik Al-Ashtar (Pragmatic reading)” (Al-Fatle, 2017). The research examines politeness’s roots in the Holy Quran, Prophet Muhammad’s sayings, and Arabic linguistic heritage. It highlights its importance in modern linguistics and modernist studies, focusing on Taha Abd Rahman’s perspective on politeness from Islamic heritage. The study also analyzes Imam Ali’s covenant phrases, analyzing their relevance and applicability in interpersonal communication.

10 Implications of Politeness in Political Discourse:

The literature has emphasized the significant implications of politeness in political communication. Polite language can foster cooperation, negotiation, and compromise, leading to more effective policymaking and governance. However, excessive politeness may also be seen as insincere or weak, so striking the right balance is crucial for politicians (Mariana, 2022).

  1. Critiques and Challenges:

Politeness theory’s application in political discourse is criticized for focusing on persuasion and rhetoric. (Fareed H. Al-Hindawi, 2016). Politeness theory emphasizes language and communication strategies for politicians to manage image, build connections, and navigate complex political environments, addressing potential cultural biases (Thanalachime Perumal, 2022) . Research explores strategic use of politeness in political speeches, enhancing public perception and outcomes.

Theoretical framework

The foundation of this study’s theoretical framework is the politeness theory, which was first put forth by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson (britannica, 2023). The notion of politeness offers a useful lens for comprehending how people negotiate social situations and control face-saving techniques during conversation (Abbas N. F., 2009)This framework aids in shedding light on the linguistic decisions and tactics used by politicians to present themselves favorably and uphold their public image in the context of political discourse.

1. Politeness Theory:

According to the notion of politeness, people communicate to preserve both their own faces (a positive self-image) and the faces of others (a favorable impression of others) (Abdul-Majeed & Kamal, 2009). Face is a key component of social identity; thus, people work hard to avoid doing things that can make them lose face (Asahi, 2022) . The theory separates politeness tactics into two categories:

  1. Positive Politeness: The strategy entails using language that aims to validate and reinforce the appealing features of the other person. Attempts are made to demonstrate empathy and understanding, as well as compliments, appreciation, and gestures of solidarity(Nordquist, 2020).
  2. Negative Politeness: By being deceptive, employing hedging language, or allowing the other person room and options, negative politeness attempts to lessen potential face threats. While communicating a request or opinion, it acknowledges the autonomy and faces the needs of the other person.(Pratiknyo, Negative Politeness, 2016).

2. Application in Political Discourse:

In the realm of political communication, politicians face the delicate task of presenting their policies, ideologies, and vision while simultaneously avoiding direct confrontation or alienating potential supporters. Politeness theory provides a framework for understanding how politicians strategically employ positive and negative politeness strategies in their speeches and public communication.

  1. Positive Politeness in Political Discourse: Politicians may use positive politeness to create a sense of camaraderie with their audience, emphasizing shared values, praising the public’s contributions, and highlighting achievements. This approach can foster a positive image of the politician and generate goodwill (studysmarter, 2023).

  1. Negative Politeness in Political Discourse: Negative politeness strategies allow politicians to present potentially controversial ideas or critiques in a more cautious and indirect manner. By respecting the autonomy and face needs of the audience, politicians can soften the impact of potentially face-threatening statements (studysmarter, 2023).
  2. Off-Record Strategies: Politicians may also employ off-record strategies(Levinson, 1987), hinting at their intentions or criticisms without explicitly stating them. This approach allows for plausible deniability and gives politicians room to backtrack if necessary.

3. Gender and Politeness in Political Discourse:

The theoretical framework also takes into account how gender plays a role in political discourse and politeness theory. In a dynamic environment where gender preconceptions and expectations affect how politeness is viewed, female politicians in particular may face challenges (Nurul Aini1a, 2023). The difficulties and opportunities faced by women in political leadership positions can be better understood by recognizing gendered politeness in politics.

The theoretical framework of politeness theory in political discourse provides a structured approach for analyzing Yair Lapid’s communication style and understanding the linguistic strategies he employs to manage face and project a positive image. By applying this framework to Yair Lapid’s speeches and communication instances, this research aims to reveal how politeness theory manifests in the political arena and contributes to the broader understanding of political communication and its impact on public perception.


This study paper’s methodology section describes the steps taken to examine and evaluate Yair Lapid’s political rhetoric via the prism of politeness theory. The research design, data gathering techniques, data analysis methodologies, and the justification for choosing Yair Lapid as the analysis case are all covered in this part.

  1. Research Design and Data Collection:

This qualitative research study analyzes Yair Lapid’s political discourse and politeness techniques using interviews, speeches, press conferences, and public pronouncements. Data is gathered from reliable media channels, political websites, and publicly accessible records to gain a deeper understanding of the motivations behind politeness in political discourse.

  1. Rationale for Selecting Yair Lapid:

Due to his prominence in modern politics and his large presence in the public arena, Yair Lapid was selected as the example for this examination. His speeches and other forms of communication provide a rich and varied dataset for researching politeness techniques in political discourse because he is a well-known political figure. Additionally, concentrating on a single person enables a concentrated and in-depth investigation.

  1. Data Analysis:

The principles of politeness theory, which are discussed in the theoretical framework section, will serve as the basis for the examination of Yair Lapid’s political discourse. The information will be evaluated to find instances of appropriate and impolite behavior as well as off-the-record communication tactics employed by Lapid. The verbal and nonverbal indicators that express courtesy will be carefully recorded in transcripts and recordings.

  1. Identifying Politeness Strategies:

Finding certain language traits and communication styles that support politeness theory will be the focus of the analysis. We’ll record and analyze instances of gratitude, adulation, solidarity emotions, hedging language, indirect requests, and other politeness cues.

  1. Comparative Analysis:

The political discourse of Yair Lapid will be examined, as well as other well-known politicians, in comparison. In order to get insight into the uniqueness of politeness practices in political communication, this comparison intends to analyze variances in politeness techniques across various political figures.

  1. Ethical Considerations and . Limitations

This qualitative study analyzes Yair Lapid’s political discourse using qualitative research and politeness theory, focusing on language’s strategic role in communication and its impact on public perception and outcomes. Ethical standards will be followed, ensuring data accessibility and respecting copyright and privacy regulations.

Analysis of Yair Lapid’s Political Discourse

In order to interact with his audience and maintain face in diverse communication situations, Yair Lapid uses politeness methods strategically and skillfully in his political discourse. We can learn a lot about how he uses off-the-record techniques and both positive and negative manners to create a positive image and connect with his constituents by thoroughly analyzing a few speeches and other public communications (Pratiknyo, datum 3, 2016)

1. Positive Politeness Strategies:

Yair Lapid frequently uses compliments, appreciation, and professions of solidarity, which reveal his positive politeness techniques. He frequently begins his remarks by applauding the Israeli public’s tenacity and commitment to the country, noting their efforts and accomplishments (Sherwood, 2013). Lapid wants to engender a sense of community and a sense of shared identity with his audience, and he does this by employing positive reinforcement strategies.

In Lapid’s political discourse, expressions of empathy and understanding are also frequent. He frequently acknowledges the difficulties encountered by common people and exhibits empathy for their worries. By connecting with his audience and demonstrating empathy, Lapid conveys that he is aware of their needs and determined to fix their problems.

this is some of Yair Lapid’s positive politeness strategies quoted and translated to English language the  analyzed

  1. Lapid claimed that ” An agreement with the Palestinians, based on two states for two peoples, is the right thing for Israel’s security, for Israel’s economy and for the future of our children, he stated ” (UN, 2022) .

Analysis of the Speech:

The speech exhibits elements of positive politeness, demonstrating a focus on dialogue and achieving peaceful solutions, while emphasizing the well be of the audience and future generations. Lapid promotes the idea of an agreement with the Palestinians based on “two states for two peoples” as the right course of action for Israel’s security, economy, & the future of their children.

Through its use of inclusive language, the sentence “An agreement with the Palestinians, based on two states for two peoples, is the right thing for Israel’s security, for Israel’s economy, and for the future of our children” exemplifies positive politeness. By using the term “our,” Lapid’s conveys to the listener a sense of shared identity and belonging that encourages comradery and togetherness.

The Lapid’s attempt to align the audience’s viewpoints with the suggested solution by highlighting that the agreement is “the right thing,” making use of shared values and interests. This tactic aims to win the audience’s backing and approval of the proposed course of action.

Lapid also emphasizes the agreement’s benefits for Israel’s economy and security, emphasizing the advantages it would bring to the nation. The Lapids are probably attempting to allay any worries or skepticism the audience may have about the agreement’s effect on their well-being by relating the proposal to Israel’s prosperity and stability.

Additionally, the phrase “for the future of our children” taps into a shared yearning for a better future that emotionally connects with the audience. In order to develop a sense of accountability and commitment among the listeners, the Lapids frame the proposed agreement as an investment in the welfare and security of the next generation.

Overall, the speech employs positive politeness to present the proposed agreement as a mutually beneficial and favorable option. Through inclusive language, appeals to shared values, and the framing of positive outcomes, the Lapid’s aims to build rapport with the audience and persuade them to support the suggested course of action.

  1. I have never been so proud of my friends. They did not lose the moral compass. Keep their values. People say: politicians can no longer be trusted. I tell them, don’t put the cheaters and the honest people in the same department. Trust the one who didn’t cheat you. Believe the one who gave up jobs because he has principles. ” (kolhazman, .2020)

Analysis of the Speech:

The speech exhibits elements of positive politeness and emotional appeal, manifested through expressing pride in friends and emphasizing moral values. The speaker emphasizes the trust that can be placed in people who uphold moral standards and make decisions in accordance with their ideals. “I have never been so proud of my friends” and “Keep their values” are expressions of praise for the friends’ adherence to moral standards.

The speech uses the persuading line, “Don’t put the cheaters and the honest people in the same department,” as part of a positive politeness technique to persuade the audience of the value of believing in trustworthy people who uphold their moral standards. This is accomplished by highlighting the importance of trusting those who did not deceive them and having faith in those who give up their careers for their moral convictions.

The speech embodies the speaker’s conviction in their ideals and views and exhibits a powerful emotional drive and motivation. The important arguments are articulated in a forceful and convincing manner to create effect. The speech takes a strong stand for honesty and integrity, which can motivate the audience and shape their opinions.

The speech is filled with personal tales and experiences that highlight the speaker’s dedication to morals and ideals in both their personal and professional lives. These instances support the speech’s credibility and exhibit a strong commitment to the subject.

In the end, the speech inspires trust and optimism in upright people who uphold their moral standards and stand for admirable social values. It might have an emotional effect on the audience, making them think about how important integrity and morality are in their daily lives and how important it is to follow ethical leaders.

2. Negative Politeness Strategies:

Yair Lapid’s discourse also demonstrates a tactful use of negative politeness strategies to avoid direct face-threatening acts while conveying his messages effectively. When discussing sensitive or potentially controversial topics, Lapid employs hedging language to soften the impact of his statements. He carefully chooses words that allow for multiple interpretations, enabling him to convey his stance without alienating any particular segment of the audience.

Furthermore, Lapid employs indirect requests and suggestions to maintain the autonomy of his audience. Instead of imposing his views, he presents his ideas as options, leaving room for individuals to consider and make their own decisions. This approach shows respect for the diverse viewpoints of the public and encourages an open dialogue.

  1. Avoiding Direct Response: Yair Lapid avoids directly responding to David Grossman’s request not to mention his grief. Instead of directly addressing the request, the Lapid’s says, “And I truly do not want to refer to this.“(, 2006) This strategy allows the speaker to respect Grossman’s wish without explicitly acknowledging it, as doing so might entail discussing sensitive or emotional issues.
  2. Downplaying Self-importance: Yair Lapid mentions that they do not remember exactly how long they have been Prime Minister, stating, “I do not know if I remember that I have been Prime Minister exactly six months.“(, 2006) By downplaying their own self-importance and knowledge, the speaker shows deference and humility, which can be perceived as a form of negative politeness.
  3. Acknowledging Potential Negative Impact: Yair Lapid acknowledges that their political plan, presented on the eve of elections, may have cost them votes. By mentioning this, Yair Lapid  indirectly recognizes that their actions could have had negative consequences for some voters, thereby preserving the autonomy of those who may have disagreed with their plan.
  4. Seeking Permission: Yair Lapid mentions that their close advisers warned against presenting their political plan on the eve of elections. By sharing this information, Yair Lapid  appears to seek permission or understanding for their decision, recognizing the potential imposition their plan may have placed on the advisers’ opinions.
  5. Offering Justification: The speaker explains their reasoning for presenting the political plan despite the warnings of their advisers. This justification can be seen as a way to mitigate any potential negative effects of their decision and to show consideration for the perspectives of their advisers.

Overall, the speech employs negative politeness strategies to navigate potentially sensitive topics and differing opinions. By avoiding direct confrontation and downplaying self-importance, the speaker seeks to respect the autonomy and face needs of their audience while addressing the topic at hand.

  1. 3. Off-Record Strategies:

Yair Lapid strategically uses off-record strategies to communicate indirectly and manage face in more delicate situations. Through the use of implicatures, he subtly hints at certain ideas or critiques without explicitly stating them. This tactic allows Lapid to address sensitive issues without directly confronting or offending his audience.

Yair Lapid’s political discourse exemplifies politeness theory, employing irony and sarcasm to criticize opponents and policies without overtly attacking them. This strategic blend of positive and negative politeness strategies, along with off-record tactics, helps Lapid manage face, build rapport, and project a positive public image. This analysis highlights the importance of effective communication strategies in politics and the impact of linguistic choices on political discourse dynamics.

  1. A dinner that only two years ago no-one would have believed was possible.”(timesofisrael, 2022)

Analysis of the speech  using Off-Record Strategy:

In the given sentence, the Lapid’s  employs an off-record strategy of implicature. By stating that “a dinner that only two years ago no-one would have believed was possible,” the speaker indirectly conveys a significant development or change in the diplomatic relations between the mentioned countries.

Off-Record Strategy – Implicature:

The Lapid’s  implies that a remarkable progress or breakthrough has occurred in the diplomatic landscape within the past two years, leading to a situation where a dinner involving the representatives of the United States, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco, and Israel was held (Lerman, 2023). However, the speaker chooses not to explicitly state the specific details or reasons behind this change.

By using implicature, the Lapid’s leaves it to the audience to infer and understand the context. The statement suggests that there might have been historical tensions or animosities among the mentioned countries in the past, making such a dinner gathering seem improbable. The audience is encouraged to read between the lines and grasp the significance of this change, possibly related to improved diplomatic relations or regional cooperation.

Off-record implicature conveys a message subtly without discussing controversial issues, creating curiosity and intrigue in the audience. It highlights diplomatic progress and its implications for regional relations.

  1. There were six of us.” (timesofisrael, 2022).

Analysis of the specch using Off-Record Strategy:

In the given sentence, the speaker employs an off-record strategy of understatement. By stating that “there were six of us,” the speaker downplays the significance of the attendees and the importance of the diplomatic event.

Off-Record Strategy – Understatement:

The actual context suggests that the dinner involved high-level representatives from the United States, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco, and Israel coming together for diplomatic discussions. However, the speaker chooses not to explicitly emphasize the importance of these attendees.

By using understatement, the speaker minimizes the significance of the dinner and the diplomatic gathering. The choice of wording makes the event seem casual or unremarkable, while in reality, it represents a historic meeting with influential figures from various countries.

Off-record understatement effectively conveys the significance of a diplomatic gathering by downplaying formalities and political tensions. This strategy allows the audience to infer the true importance of the dinner based on context and high-ranking officials involved. The understatement adds informality, creating an openness and approachability in the speech.

Comparison with Other Politicians

Comparative Analysis of Politicians’ Politeness Strategies in Political Discourse:

  1. 1. Politician A:

For the purpose of this comparative analysis, let’s consider “Politician A” as Angela Merkel (Petrikowski, 2023 ), the former Chancellor of Germany. Angela Merkel is known for her composed and measured communication style. When analyzing her use of positive politeness strategies, we find that she frequently employs compliments and praise to recognize the efforts of the German people and their contributions to the nation’s success. Merkel’s speeches often emphasize a sense of national unity and shared values, projecting a leadership style that fosters solidarity with her audience.

In comparison to Yair Lapid, Angela Merkel’s positive politeness approach may be more focused on highlighting collective achievements and shared responsibilities, emphasizing her role as a unifying figure for Germany.

  1. 2. Politician B:

For “Politician B,” let’s consider Justin Trudeau (Wallenfeldt, 2023), the former Prime Minister of Canada. Justin Trudeau is known for his charismatic and empathetic communication style. In examining his use of negative politeness strategies, we find that Trudeau employs hedging language and indirect requests when discussing sensitive or divisive issues. He often acknowledges the diverse perspectives of the Canadian public and presents policy options to maintain the autonomy of his audience.

In contrast to Yair Lapid, Justin Trudeau’s negative politeness approach may be more inclined towards empathetic listening and acknowledgment of opposing viewpoints, fostering an inclusive and accommodating political environment.

  1. 3. Off-Record Strategies:

In the domain of off-record strategies, the comparative analysis reveals that different politicians use varying degrees of implicatures, irony, and sarcasm to hint at their intentions indirectly. Yair Lapid might employ off-record strategies to navigate delicate political situations and criticism subtly. Angela Merkel, on the other hand, may resort to more implicit language to convey critiques or disagreements discreetly. Meanwhile, Justin Trudeau may leverage off-record tactics to address complex policy matters with finesse and diplomacy.

  1. 4. Gender Considerations:

Gender differences in politeness strategies among politicians, such as Yair Lapid and Angela Merkel, may stem from societal expectations and gender roles. Female politicians may adopt positive strategies to maintain assertiveness and likability, while male politicians use negative ones to respect diverse opinions.

  1. 5. Cultural Variations:

Comparing the application of politeness theory in political communication across cultural and national contexts reveals that different politicians adapt their communication styles to their cultural norms and expectations. Yair Lapid, as an Israeli politician, may employ politeness strategies influenced by the Israeli cultural context (Prof. Tamar Hermann, 2021), while Angela Merkel’s communication style may reflect the German cultural values of precision and pragmatism (Esch, 2023). Meanwhile, Justin Trudeau’s approach may align with Canadian cultural norms, which emphasize diversity and inclusivity. (, 2015)

Implications and Impact.

The analysis of politeness theory in political discourse, with a focus on Yair Lapid and its comparative implications with other politicians, carries significant implications for political communication and governance. The strategic use of politeness strategies by politicians can profoundly influence public perception, shape political culture, and impact the effectiveness of governance.

  1. 1. Building Trust and Rapport:

The research findings emphasize the importance of positive politeness strategies in building trust and rapport with constituents (David W Johnson, Linguistic Politeness in Student-Team Emails: Its Impact on Trust Between Leaders and Members, 2011). When politicians employ compliments, praise, and expressions of solidarity, they create a positive emotional connection with the public. This fosters a sense of community and strengthens the bond between politicians and their audience, ultimately leading to increased support for their policies and initiatives.

  1. 2. Enhancing Political Persuasion:

The analysis of negative politeness strategies reveals a powerful tool (Ngadiran, 2021) for enhancing political persuasion. By using hedging language and providing options (Vlasyan, 2018), politicians can present their ideas in a non-threatening manner. Respecting the autonomy and face needs of the public makes them more receptive to potentially controversial ideas, thus increasing the likelihood of gaining public support for policy proposals.

  1. 3. Navigating Political Conflict:

Off-record strategies, such as implicatures and irony, offer politicians a means to navigate political conflicts and criticism with subtlety (Yanti, 2017)). By conveying disagreement indirectly, politicians can minimize direct confrontation while managing their public image. This approach enables constructive dialogue and negotiation, essential for resolving political disputes effectively. (GIESSMANN, 202)

  1. 4. Impact on Political Culture and Gender and Politeness:

The study highlights the importance of politeness strategies in shaping political culture, as respectful communication fosters a more civil and constructive environment. Impolite and aggressive language contribute to a toxic culture, polarizing public opinion and hindering meaningful dialogue. Examining gendered politeness in political discourse helps women navigate political spaces effectively.

  1. 6. Public Perception and Political Leadership:

The strategic use of politeness in political discourse significantly impacts public perception of politicians and their leadership qualities. Positive politeness strategies contribute to a more likable and credible image, while negative politeness allows politicians to maintain respect for diverse opinions and viewpoints. These factors play a crucial role in shaping the public’s trust and confidence in political leadership.

  1. 7. Effectiveness of Governance Ethical Considerations in Political Communication:

Effective governance relies on clear, persuasive communication, and politeness strategies in political discourse enhance collaboration and consensus-building. Using language that resonates with audiences and maintains positive relationships leads to more effective policymaking and implementation.

Critique and Limitations.

Apologies for the misunderstanding. Let’s rephrase the “Critique and Limitations” section specifically for the research paper on Yair Lapid’s politeness strategies in political discourse:

Critique and Limitations:

  1. 1. Sample Selection:

One limitation of this research is its exclusive focus on analyzing the politeness strategies of Yair Lapid. While this approach enables a thorough examination of his communication style, it may not fully capture the diversity of political discourse. Including a more diverse sample of politicians with varying communication styles could provide a broader understanding of politeness in political contexts.

  1. 2. Subjectivity in Analysis:

As with any qualitative study, the analysis of politeness strategies may involve some level of subjectivity. The researchers’ perspectives and biases may influence the interpretation of Yair Lapid’s discourse. To mitigate this limitation, employing multiple coders and conducting inter-coder reliability checks are essential for ensuring a more objective analysis.

  1. 3. Generalizability:

Since the research focuses on a specific politician in a particular context, the findings may have limited generalizability to other political settings. Political communication is shaped by various cultural and contextual factors, and caution should be exercised when applying the results to different political environments.

  1. 4. Causality and Effect Size:

The research primarily identifies politeness strategies used by Yair Lapid without establishing a direct causal link between these strategies and their impact on public perception or political outcomes. To ascertain the effect size and causal relationships, further experimental or longitudinal studies would be necessary.

  1. 5. Public vs. Private Communication:

The study primarily relies on publicly available speeches and communication instances of Yair Lapid. However, politicians may use different communication strategies in private settings or behind closed doors (thinkingheads, 2020) , which might not be captured in the analysis.

  1. 6. Ethical Considerations:

Analyzing a public figure’s discourse raises ethical considerations, including issues of privacy and consent. Although the data used are publicly available, respecting ethical guidelines in studying political figures is essential.

  1. 7. Temporal Constraints:

The analysis is based on data available up to the research’s cut-off date. Political dynamics are continually evolving (McKenna, 2023), and new communication instances may emerge after the data collection period, potentially influencing the interpretation of the findings.

  1. 8. Scope and Depth:

The comprehensive nature of politeness theory and political discourse may not fully encompass Yair Lapid’s communication style. However, the study’s scope may limit an exhaustive analysis. Acknowledging limitations can inform future research directions and contribute to a more nuanced understanding of politeness in political communication.


This research analyzes politeness strategies in Yair Lapid’s political discourse, focusing on the application of politeness theory in political communication. It reveals Yair Lapid’s strategic use of politeness to engage with his audience, manage face, and present himself as a political leader. The study also compares Lapid’s strategies with prominent politicians Angela Merkel and Justin Trudeau, providing valuable insights into the individuality of politeness practices in political contexts.

Yair Lapid’s positive politeness strategies include compliments, praise, and expressions of solidarity, building trust and rapport with his constituents. His negative politeness strategies involve respectfully addressing diverse opinions and controversial topics, enhancing his persuasive communication. Off-record strategies, such as implicatures and irony, enable Lapid to communicate indirectly while managing his public image effectively.

The research highlights the potential impact of politeness strategies on political culture, public perception, and governance effectiveness. Positive politeness fosters a civil and constructive political environment, while negative politeness encourages inclusivity and collaboration. Future research should consider a more diverse sample of politicians and employ a systematic approach to reduce subjectivity.


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