Teacher Education







CRMEF Casablanca- Settat – Morocco


This article examines the complex challenges faced by Moroccan educators within the context of a diverse student population. It explores the application of design thinking as a transformative approach to teacher education.

Morocco’s education system is a reflection of its rich cultural tapestry, characterized by a student body that is as diverse as its landscapes. This diversity encompasses cultural, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions, presenting both opportunities and challenges for educators.

Morocco boasts a student population that brings a kaleidoscope of cultures, languages, and ethnicities from different regions. This cultural mosaic, while being a testament to the nation’s vibrant heritage, poses significant challenges for educators who must navigate this diversity with sensitivity and understanding.

Design thinking offers a holistic and innovative approach to addressing these challenges. It provides a framework that fosters empathy, problem definition, creative ideation, prototyping, and iterative testing. By applying design thinking to Morocco’s education system, there is potential to reshape not only teaching methodologies but also student learning experiences.

Key words: Moroccan education, design thinking, teacher training, diversity, linguistic barriers, skill levels, innovative solutions.



I-    Understanding the Challenges

II-   Applying Design Thinking in Education

III-  Application of Design Thinking in Training Context, Case of Training Moroccan Teachers


-Selected bibliography

– Annexes

استكشاف التنوع: التفكير التصميمي في تعليم المعلمين المغاربة

د. بشرى بن الهادي

و د.  سعدية دحان

المركز الجهوي لمهن التربية والتكوين لجهة الدار البيضاء

سطات، المقر الرئيس – المغرب


هذا المقال يبحث في التحديات المعقدة التي يواجهها المعلمون المغاربة في سياق تنوع الطلاب. يستكشف تطبيق التفكير التصميمي كنهج تحويلي لتعليم المعلمين.

نظام التعليم في المغرب هو انعكاس لنسيجه الثقافي الغني ، الذي يتميز بهيئة طلابية متنوعة مثل مناظرها الطبيعية. يشمل هذا التنوع الأبعاد الثقافية واللغوية والعرقية ، مما يوفر فرصا وتحديات للمعلمين.

يفتخر المغرب بتعداد طلابي يجمع بين مزيج من الثقافات واللغات والأعراق من مناطق مختلفة. هذا الفسيفساء الثقافي، بينما يكون شهادة على التراث النابض بالحياة للأمة، يطرح تحديات كبيرة للمعلمين الذين يجب عليهم التنقل في هذا التنوع بحساسية وفهم.

يقدم التفكير التصميمي نهجًا شاملاً ومبتكرًا لمواجهة هذه التحديات. يوفر إطارًا يعزز التعاطف وتعريف المشكلة والإبداع في توليد الأفكار والنمذجة الأولية والاختبار التكراري. من خلال تطبيق التفكير التصميمي على نظام التعليم في المغرب، هناك إمكانية لإعادة تشكيل ليس فقط منهجيات التدريس ولكن أيضًا تجارب تعلم الطلاب.

الكلمات المفتاحية: التعليم المغربي، التفكير التصميمي، تكوين المعلمين، التنوع، الحواجز اللغوية، مستويات المهارة، الحلول المبتكرة.



Morocco’s educational landscape is marked by a myriad of challenges (Boutieri, C. 2016)  that educators grapple with on a daily basis. From the diverse cultural, linguistic, and ethnic backgrounds of students to the formidable barriers posed by a multilingual context, teachers must navigate a complex terrain to deliver quality education. Moreover, the significant variation in students’ skill levels within the same classroom further compounds the difficulties faced by educators. It is imperative to delve into these challenges to comprehend the intricacies of the educational system in Morocco and identify innovative solutions that can propel it forward.

Problem Statement: “How can design thinking be fully integrated into teacher training in Morocco to address current challenges such as student diversity, linguistic barriers, and varying levels of skills, and what potential impacts does this approach have on improving education, fostering teacher creativity, enhancing collaboration within the education community, and boosting academic performance of students? Additionally, considering the lessons learned from the Moroccan experience, how can it serve as a model for other countries facing similar challenges?”

Moroccan educators operate within a diverse and dynamic environment characterized by a rich tapestry of cultures, languages, and ethnicities ( MTAFI, O., & TIJJINI, M. 2022). This diversity, while a source of cultural wealth, presents formidable challenges to teachers. Understanding the nuanced needs of students hailing from different regions, speaking various languages, and possessing diverse life experiences is crucial for delivering education that is not only of high quality but also equitable.

The imperative to effectively address the multifaceted challenges inherent in educational settings is of utmost importance. Neglecting to consider the varied backgrounds of students, language barriers, and disparate levels of proficiency can significantly undermine the objective of delivering an inclusive and equitable educational experience. It is crucial to devise strategies that adeptly cater to these challenges to guarantee that all students have the opportunity to engage in high-quality learning endeavors. Mastery in circumventing these impediments is essential for cultivating an environment conducive to learning and for promoting the intellectual development of every learner[1].

In the realm of Moroccan educational challenges, design thinking stands out as a pivotal element of change. It introduces a comprehensive, innovative methodology to teacher training, encompassing empathy cultivation, precise problem articulation, inventive brainstorming, prototype development, and continuous refinement through testing. This scholarly article delves into the application of design thinking within Morocco’s unique educational landscape, probing its capacity to revolutionize teaching methodologies and student learning processes. The objective is to dissect the complexities of integrating design thinking into Moroccan pedagogical practices, thereby illuminating a path of innovation for educational reform at large.

  1. Understanding the Challenges

A. Diversity of Students in Morocco

1.Cultural, Linguistic, and Ethnic Diversity

Morocco, a nation celebrated for its cultural richness, is home to a student body as varied as its landscapes. These students come from different regions, each carrying a unique blend of cultural practices, languages, and ethnic backgrounds. This rich cultural tapestry not only reflects the vibrant legacy of the nation but also presents challenges for educators. To effectively navigate this diversity, educators must have a deep understanding of each student’s cultural heritage, recognizing the diverse traditions, customs, and languages that form the fabric of Moroccan society[2]. (Bouziane, A. (2020)

In this context of varied educational needs, design thinking emerges as a pivotal tool for educators. It provides a comprehensive and innovative methodology for teacher education that fosters empathy, clear problem definition, creative ideation, prototyping, and iterative testing. Exploring the application of design thinking to Morocco’s specific educational challenges reveals its potential to revolutionize not just teaching methods but also student learning experiences. This article delves into the complexities of utilizing design thinking to meet the unique needs of Moroccan educators, offering a ray of hope for innovating education on a wider scale.

2.The Moroccan Education System: A Tapestry of Richness and Challenges

The mosaic of cultural, linguistic, and ethnic diversity within Moroccan classrooms serves as a wellspring of enrichment, creating a dynamic educational landscape where students benefit from the shared experiences and viewpoints of their peers. Yet, this same diversity introduces complexities to the educational framework. Educators are tasked with the intricate job of customizing their teaching methodologies to accommodate the diverse linguistic proclivities, cultural norms, and cognitive styles of their pupils. Striking a harmonious balance between embracing this diversity and ensuring an inclusive, fair educational experience necessitates a nuanced and critical comprehension of the complex layers that constitute the backgrounds of Moroccan students.

As we explore the complexities inherent in this diversity, it becomes clear that the key to unlocking the Moroccan education system’s full potential is to embrace and tackle the challenges presented by this vibrant cultural mosaic. The subsequent sections will delve into the particular challenges posed by language barriers and diverse levels of skills, providing insights on how the application of design thinking can help surmount these obstacles, thereby laying the groundwork for a more inclusive and efficacious educational framework in Morocco.

B. Linguistic Barriers

  1. Multilingual Context in Morocco

Morocco is renowned for its cultural plurality, which is mirrored in its multilingual context. The linguistic landscape is marked by the simultaneous presence of various languages, including Arabic, Tamazight (Berber), French, and Spanish in certain areas (El Aissati, A.2013)

 Although Arabic is the official language of education, many students come to class speaking different mother tongues, thereby complicating the educational milieu. This multilingual setting, while indicative of Morocco’s rich cultural tapestry, presents linguistic hurdles that educators must overcome to facilitate effective instruction and learning.

  1. Implications for Teaching and Learning

The multilingual context in Moroccan classrooms presents complex implications for both teaching and learning (Daniel, M. C., & Ball, A. 2010) With Arabic being the official language of instruction, students who speak other native languages may face challenges in understanding lesson content. This linguistic disparity can obstruct effective communication, reduce student engagement, and limit participation in classroom activities.

Moreover, teachers are tasked with the complex job of closing language gaps to foster an inclusive learning atmosphere. The necessity to cater to diverse linguistic backgrounds calls for creative teaching methods that surpass the standard one-size-fits-all approach. It demands a deep comprehension of each student’s language abilities and a customized method that guarantees all students have equal access to educational materials.

C. Varying Levels of Student Skills

  1. Educational Disparities Among Students

Educational disparities among students are highlighted by alarming statistics. For instance, UNESCO reported that around 258 million children and adolescents globally did not have access to education in 2018(UNESCO Institute for Statistics UIS ). Furthe more, students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds score on average 2 to 3 years of learning behind their more privileged peers. In some countries, the literacy rate gap between youths living in rural and urban areas can reach up to 25%. These figures underscore the need for targeted interventions to reduce gaps and promote inclusive and equitable education for all.

In Morocco, the educational landscape reveals a complex tapestry of student abilities within the same learning environment. These educational disparities arise from numerous factors such as unequal access to quality education, diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, and regional differences in educational provisions. Consequently, while some learners come to class equipped with a solid educational base, others grapple with challenges linked to scarce pre-educational resources. This results in a broad range of skills and knowledge that educators must adeptly manage, rendering the mission to provide equitable educational opportunities quite challenging.

  1. Challenges for Teachers in Meeting Diverse Learning Needs

The broad range of student abilities poses a significant challenge for educators to address the varied learning requirements within a single classroom setting. Teachers are charged with the responsibility of catering to the needs of students who may be at varying levels of proficiency, necessitating a fine equilibrium between extending extra support to those who are falling behind and providing enrichment opportunities for those who are prepared to progress. This requires a sophisticated comprehension of each student’s individual strengths, weaknesses, and preferred learning modalities to customize teaching effectively (Brigui, H. 2022)

Furthermore, conventional pedagogical techniques may prove inadequate for catering to the extensive array of skill levels, highlighting the necessity for inventive methods that are capable of adjusting to the unique needs of each learner. The challenge is not limited to academic skills but also includes social-emotional and cultural dimensions, calling for an all-encompassing approach that promotes an inclusive and nurturing educational atmosphere.

  1. Applying Design Thinking in Education

A. Introduction to Key Principles of Design Thinking

Design thinking, a dynamic and human-centered problem-solving approach, offers a transformative lens through which educators can address the intricate challenges in Moroccan education. This methodology (Brown, T. 2010) is guided by several key principles that form the foundation of its application in the educational context. Emphasizing collaboration, creativity, and empathy, design thinking equips educators with a powerful toolkit to craft innovative solutions tailored to the diverse needs of students.

At the core of design thinking is empathy, the capacity to profoundly grasp and relate to the experiences, obstacles, and goals of students. By delving into the varied cultural and linguistic contexts of their students, educators can acquire deep insights into the challenges they encounter. Empathy acts as a navigational tool, steering teachers towards crafting solutions that align with the distinct necessities of each pupil. This empathetic methodology ensures that educational strategies are not just efficacious but also strike a chord with students on an individual level, cultivating a more impactful and inclusive educational journey.

Gaining a deeper insight into the needs of students via empathetic interaction is crucial. Following this, it’s essential to identify particular challenges that are widespread within Morocco’s educational system. This step demands from educators the ability to simplify complex issues, such as language obstacles and diverse levels of abilities, into concise and actionable issues. Identifying the fundamental reasons behind these challenges enables teachers to establish a foundation for focused and impactful solutions.

Design thinking prompts educators to partake in creative ideation sessions, where they collaboratively brainstorm innovative solutions to the outlined challenges. These sessions become fertile grounds for unconventional ideas that defy traditional teaching methods. From employing multilingual teaching techniques to developing adaptive learning materials, ideation paves the way for fresh strategies adept at addressing the complexities of Morocco’s varied educational environment. (Curedale, R. 2013)

After ideation, the design thinking methodology encompasses prototyping—crafting rudimentary models of the envisioned solutions. This physical manifestation permits educators to envisage and refine their concepts prior to comprehensive execution. Prototyping acts as an essential intermediary between idea formation and its practical application, ensuring the solutions are pragmatic, achievable, and tailored to meet the distinct requirements of Moroccan learners.

The apex of the design thinking process is reached during the testing phase, wherein educators deploy their developed prototypes within the educational setting. Engaging directly with this practical application yields critical insights into how effective the proposed solutions truly are. Educators can employ various methods such as evaluations, observations, and student feedback to collect data that will aid in the enhancement and continuous improvement of their methodologies. This cyclical refinement process is pivotal in ensuring that educational strategies are attuned to the ever-changing requirements of students, thereby fostering a learning environment that is both dynamic and adaptable.

B-Advantages of Applying Design Thinking to Teacher Education

  1. Fostering Innovation and Creativity

Incorporating design thinking into teacher education programs acts as a powerful impetus for nurturing innovation and creativity within teachers. This transformative strategy goes beyond mere problem-solving; it fundamentally alters educators’ perspectives and methods of instruction, heralding the advent of vibrant and interactive educational settings. Reformulate in English: 1. The Impact on Teacher Mindset and Approach

Design thinking disrupts conventional educational paradigms, fostering a mindset of adaptability and receptiveness to change. Educators versed in design thinking methodologies are taught to perceive uncertainty not as a barrier but as a springboard for innovation. This paradigm shift prompts teachers to regard challenges not as insurmountable barriers but as triggers for inventive solutions. It cultivates an ethos of perpetual enhancement, where teachers are encouraged to delve into, experiment, and refine their pedagogical strategies in tune with the dynamic necessities of their pupils(Brenner, W., & Uebernickel, F. 2016)..

Furthermore, design thinking positions teachers as proactive contributors to the educational journey rather than mere disseminators of knowledge. This cooperative and recurrent methodology nurtures a shared sense of creation between educators and learners, engendering a more democratic and engaging learning environment.

  1. Enhancing an Interactive and Stimulating Educational Environment

The integration of design thinking into the pedagogical training of educators leads to the significant development of an interactive and stimulating educational environment. Teachers proficient in design thinking principles introduce a high degree of creativity into their instructional methods, thereby transforming the learning process into an engaging and dynamic experience for students. Through the strategic application of teaching techniques inspired by design thinking, teachers are able to maintain student engagement and cultivate a profound interest in learning.

The principle of empathy, central to design thinking, ensures that educators are highly responsive to the diverse requirements and preferences of their students. This individualized approach engenders a more stimulating and student-focused educational setting, where instruction is customized to align with distinct learning styles. As a consequence, students become deeply involved in their educational journey, contributing to a more collaborative and enriching academic environment.

  1. Enhancing Cooperative Efforts

Cultivating a Collaborative Ethos Amongst Teaching Professionals

Incorporating design thinking into the essence of educator training serves as an impetus for cultivating a collaborative ethos amongst teaching professionals. Historically perceived as isolated entities, teachers equipped with design thinking competencies dismantle the barriers of seclusion and welcome the strength found in united problem-solving. Cooperative sessions become a cornerstone of professional growth, wherein educators exchange insights, experiences, and pioneering concepts. This pivot towards cooperative engagement not only augments the shared knowledge reservoir but also fosters a communal spirit and reciprocal support within the educational sphere.

As educators engage in cooperation, they tap into an array of viewpoints, reaping the benefits of each teacher’s rich experiential tapestry (Liedtka, J. 2015). The outcome is a vibrant interplay of notions, methodologies, and exemplary practices that significantly enhance the teaching vocation. Through joint endeavors, educational professionals can collectively tackle intricate challenges like language obstacles and diverse proficiency levels, paving the way for a more inclusive and efficacious educational methodology in Morocco.

  1. Engaging with Parents, Experts, and Stakeholders for Holistic Solutions

The philosophy of design thinking promotes collaboration that transcends the educational sphere, actively involving parents, experts, and various stakeholders. Through meaningful dialogues with parents, educators can glean significant insights into the complexities of students’ lives beyond school walls. Such cooperative efforts ensure that educational strategies are congruent with the cultural and family dynamics influencing students’ academic journeys.

Furthermore, forging partnerships with experts and stakeholders offers a comprehensive view of the obstacles confronting the educational infrastructure. By leveraging an expansive network of professionals, teachers can procure specialized expertise and resources that bolster the efficacy of pedagogical measures. The concerted efforts of educators, parents, experts, and stakeholders culminate in integrated solutions that tackle the diverse aspects of education in Morocco.

5 Positive Impact on Student Outcomes

  1. Enhanced Student Involvement and Drive

The ripple effect of integrating design thinking into teacher education is evident in student achievements, characterized by increased involvement and amplified drive. Teachers who are adept in design thinking methodologies engineer educational experiences that align with students’ curiosities and necessities. The focus on empathetic comprehension guarantees that pedagogical strategies are not just pertinent but also enthralling for learners.

As learning environments evolve into more vibrant and participatory spaces, students transition from being mere spectators to active contributors in their educational journey. This transformation endorses a sense of responsibility and zest for knowledge acquisition. Pedagogies enriched with design thinking principles foster a setting where learners are acknowledged, listened to, and appreciated, thereby nurturing an affirmative and inspiring educational climate.

  1. Enhanced Academic Performance and Overall Well-being

The profound influence of design thinking on educator preparation extends beyond mere motivation to significant enhancements in both academic achievement and general wellness (Adler, A. 2016). Customized pedagogical strategies cater to the varying abilities of learners, thereby narrowing the educational gaps. The flexibility inherent in design thinking equips educators with the capability to customize their teaching techniques to meet the unique requirements of each pupil, ensuring a more inclusive and efficacious educational journey.

Moreover, the individualized and cooperative essence of design thinking engenders a nurturing scholastic atmosphere that surpasses mere scholarly results. Pupils gain advantages not solely in academic realms but also in social and emotional facets, augmenting their comprehensive well-being. This all-encompassing educational methodology is congruent with the overarching aim of fostering versatile individuals who are equipped to navigate the intricacies of an ever-changing global landscape.

II Application of Design Thinking in Training Context, Case of Training Moroccan Teachers

A-    Empathy Understanding Workshop:

This workshop offers a unique opportunity for participants to immerse themselves in the role of an educator in Morocco. It is designed to provide a deep dive into the complexities of cultural and linguistic diversity within the educational landscape. Attendees will engage in a series of interactive virtual scenarios and simulations that mimic real-life classroom challenges. These activities aim to foster a greater understanding of the varied needs and perspectives of students who come from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, thereby equipping educators with the skills necessary to create an inclusive learning environment.

The experience framework is a realistic visual representation of classrooms, urban neighborhoods, and rural areas in Morocco. Participants are immersed in interactive environments that mirror the diverse educational realities of the country, allowing them to fully grasp the challenges faced by educators and students on a daily basis.

Virtual guides accompany participants throughout the experience, providing contextual information, facilitating discussions, and leading interactive activities. Advanced technological tools will enable smooth and immersive interaction, offering participants an experience as close to reality as possible.

The experience framework provides educators and students in Morocco with a realistic depiction of various educational environments. Through immersive interactive activities, they gain a deeper understanding of the multifaceted challenges within their educational system.

Educators benefit from simulated teaching scenarios that enhance their pedagogical strategies, while students engage in problem-solving exercises that foster critical thinking skills. Role-playing games offer insights into practical classroom dynamics. These activities are guided by virtual mentors who facilitate learning and reflection. The use of advanced technology in these interactive sessions not only enriches the educational experience but also prepares participants for real-world digital integration.

In Morocco’s virtual experience framework, virtual mentors play a pivotal role in enhancing the educational journey for both educators and students. They act as navigators within the realistic simulations of classrooms and other learning environments, providing guidance and expert insights.

Virtual mentors facilitate interactive activities by offering real-time feedback, leading discussions, and providing contextual information that enriches the learning experience. They support educators in developing effective teaching methods and assist students in honing their problem-solving and critical thinking abilities. The mentors’ presence ensures a structured yet flexible learning environment that mirrors real-life educational challenges and opportunities.

The role of virtual mentors is crucial in this preparation process. They guide students through complex digital tasks, fostering an understanding of digital literacy and fluency. This hands-on approach with advanced technological tools not only builds technical skills but also instills confidence in students to seamlessly integrate into a digital-centric world.

Creative Brainstorming Session

In the context of the Creative Brainstorming Session, participants are segregated into diminutive cohorts for the purpose of engaging in ideation sessions. Under the stewardship of seasoned facilitators, they embark on an exploration of inventive and pioneering concepts aimed at addressing the educational impediments previously delineated. The scholars employ interactive apparatuses to document and disseminate their conceptions contemporaneously amongst their peers.

Session: Virtual Prototyping:

During this critical prototyping phase, students engage in a collaborative effort, forming teams to bring their innovative ideas to life as virtual prototypes. They employ a range of simple yet powerful design tools, which enable them to construct concrete and tangible solutions that address the identified educational challenges. This process not only fosters creativity but also critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Participants will have the unique opportunity to visualize and test their prototypes within immersive simulations that mimic real-world educational scenarios, providing valuable insights into the practical application and impact of their designs.

Collaborative sessions

During the collaborative sessions, students showcased their prototypes to fellow participants, engaging in an exchange of constructive feedback. Through group reflection, they deliberated on the strengths, weaknesses, and potential enhancements of each proposed solution, capitalizing on the diverse perspectives and experiences within the group.

Final presentation

In the final presentation, each group unveils their solutions through an interactive session with all participants. This moment serves as an opportunity to share final thoughts on the design process and the lessons learned throughout the experience. To conclude, a summary of key findings and recommendations is shared, encapsulating the essence of the experience.

B-     Example for project

  • Context

Number of participants: 250 trainee professors with ten people per group, i.e. 25 groups

Group of ten trainee professors

Area : Souss-Massa

   Level: Primary

Distribution of pre-school students by provinces and prefectures (2018-2019)

  • chronology

The project will take place over a period of six months, comprising several key stages:

Main activities

Duration Main activities

Initial Planning

Month 1

-A team meeting to define project objectives, identify stakeholders, and establish a work schedule.

-In-depth research on the specific educational challenges of the Souss-Massa region, including cultural diversity, linguistic diversity and available resources.

Project Design

2-3 months

-Development of a detailed plan to address the identified challenges, with a focus on using design thinking as the primary approach.

-Formation of working groups to focus on specific aspects of the project, such as community engagement, teacher professional development, and improvement of educational resources.

Deployment 4-5 months

Implementation of planned initiatives, including training workshops for teachers, awareness-raising sessions for parents, and educational activities for students.

Data collection throughout the process to assess the effectiveness of interventions and identify areas for adjustment.

Analysis and Evaluation Month 6 Analysis of the data collected to assess the impact of the initiatives on students, teachers, and the community as a whole.

Conducting formal and informal evaluations to gather feedback from participants and stakeholders.

Preparation of a final report presenting the results of the experiment, lessons learned and recommendations for the continuous improvement of education in the Souss-Massa region.

  • Description of the project stages:


The design thinking project for teacher training in the Souss-Massa region of Morocco is taking place in several key stages:

  • Research and Immersion Stage:
  • The project team travels to the Souss-Massa region to conduct interviews with local educators, school leaders, parents and students.
  • They observe classrooms, school infrastructure, and available resources to better understand the local educational context.
  • The team collects data on the challenges faced by teachers, the needs of students, and opportunities for improvement.

  • Data Analysis and Synthesis:
  • The data collected is analysed to identify key challenges and opportunities in education in the region.
  • The team identifies emerging trends, patterns, and themes from the data to guide the design of innovative solutions.

  • Idea Generation & Prototyping:
  • The team organizes brainstorming sessions and design thinking workshops to generate innovative ideas aimed at addressing the identified educational challenges.
  • The ideas are then developed into prototypes, which are simplified versions of the proposed solutions.
  • Prototypes are tested and refined based on feedback from teachers, students, and other stakeholders.
  • Pilot implementation:
  • The most promising solutions are selected for pilot implementation in schools in the region.
  • The team works closely with teachers and school leaders to implement the pilot solutions and collect data on their effectiveness.

  • Assessment and Adjustment:
  • The results of the pilot implementation are evaluated to determine their impact on the educational experience of students and teachers.
  • Based on the results of the evaluation, the solutions are adjusted and improved to meet the real needs of the users.

  • Documentation and sharing of results:
  • The results of the project, including solutions developed, lessons learned and good practices, are documented and shared with the local education community, policymakers and other stakeholders.
  • The lessons learned from the project can be used to guide education policies and future initiatives to improve education in the Souss-Massa region and beyond.

As future teachers in the Souss-Massa region, here are our proposals to improve education in this area

  • Project Delivery

– Adapted Teacher Training Program:

We propose to develop a teacher training program specifically tailored to the needs of the region. This programme will include modules on cultural and linguistic diversity, pedagogical methods adapted to a multicultural context, and the use of local resources in teaching.

  • Creation of interactive educational resources:

We will develop interactive educational resources, such as educational apps, educational videos, and serious games, that will be adapted to the linguistic and cultural needs of students in the region. These resources will help make learning more engaging and accessible for all students.

  • Strengthening Student Engagement:

We propose to implement programs to strengthen student engagement in their education, by organizing extracurricular activities, community projects, and cultural events that value the diversity of the region.

  • Collaboration with families and communities:

We will work closely with families and local communities to create an inclusive and supportive educational environment. This will include information sessions for parents, community volunteering initiatives, and partnerships with local organizations.

  • Continuous monitoring and evaluation:

We propose to set up a continuous monitoring and evaluation system to measure the impact of our initiatives and make necessary adjustments. This will include regular assessments of student progress, teacher feedback, and follow-up meetings with local stakeholders.

Conclusion :

The application of design thinking in the context of teacher training in Morocco has provided valuable lessons for overcoming the various challenges faced by the national education system. The exploration of a wide range of themes, including cultural diversity, linguistic barriers, and disparities in student skill levels, has underscored the necessity of embracing innovative methodologies to enhance pedagogical practices. This approach has been instrumental in formulating teaching strategies that are more inclusive and attuned to the multicultural and multilingual landscape of Moroccan classrooms. It has also promoted a greater consideration for the individual needs of each student, ensuring that each learner receives a tailored educational experience that accounts for their unique background and abilities.

In the pursuit of addressing the multifaceted challenges within Morocco’s national education system, the integration of design thinking into teacher training has been pivotal. This has involved delving into various themes such as cultural diversity, language barriers, and student skill disparities, which in turn has highlighted the critical role of innovative methodologies in refining pedagogical practices. Examples of these methodologies include collaborative learning, which leverages the diverse perspectives and knowledge of students; project-based learning that contextualizes academic concepts within real-world scenarios; and technology-enhanced learning that utilizes digital tools to cater to different learning styles. These strategies collectively contribute to a more inclusive and adaptive educational framework that resonates with the diverse tapestry of Moroccan classrooms and addresses the unique needs of each student.

In the context of Morocco’s national education system, the adoption of design thinking in teacher training has been a transformative step towards addressing its complex challenges. This approach has necessitated an exploration into various themes, such as cultural diversity, linguistic barriers, and student skill level disparities. Among the innovative methodologies highlighted is project-based learning (PBL), which is an educational approach that involves students in complex, real-world projects through which they develop and apply skills and knowledge. PBL not only promotes critical thinking, problem-solving, and collaboration but also allows students to gain a deeper understanding of the subjects they are studying by engaging them in hands-on activities that have clear ties to the community and the world around them. This method is particularly effective in Moroccan classrooms where it can bridge cultural and linguistic divides and cater to diverse learning needs.

A-    Recommendations:


  • Integration of Design Thinking in Teacher Training Programs: It is recommended to incorporate modules on design thinking principles into existing teacher training programs in Morocco. These modules should focus on cultivating empathy, problem-solving skills, and creativity among educators to better address the diverse needs of students.
  • Continued Professional Development: Continuous professional development workshops and seminars should be organized to ensure that educators remain updated on the latest trends and methodologies in design thinking. This will empower them to continually refine their teaching practices and adapt to the evolving educational landscape.
  • Collaborative Initiatives: Encouraging collaboration among teachers, educational experts, parents, and stakeholders is essential for developing holistic solutions to educational challenges. Platforms for sharing best practices and collaborative problem-solving should be established to foster a culture of cooperation within the education community.
  • Research and Evaluation: Further research and evaluation are needed to assess the efficacy of design thinking methodologies in improving student outcomes and enhancing teacher performance. Longitudinal studies can provide valuable insights into the long-term impact of design thinking on educational practices in Morocco.
  • Investment in Educational Resources: Adequate investment in educational resources, including technology infrastructure and multilingual teaching materials, is crucial for supporting the implementation of design thinking in Moroccan schools. Governments and educational institutions should allocate resources to ensure equitable access to quality education for all students.

B-     Opening paths:

  • Scaling Up: The success of this virtual experience highlights the potential for scaling up design thinking initiatives in teacher education beyond Morocco. Similar virtual experiences can be developed for educators in other countries facing comparable challenges, fostering international collaboration and knowledge exchange.
  • Community Engagement: Engaging local communities and parents in educational initiatives can further enrich the learning environment and promote a sense of ownership among stakeholders. Community-driven approaches to education can leverage indigenous knowledge and cultural resources to enhance student learning outcomes.
  • Innovation Hubs: Establishing innovation hubs or centers of excellence for design thinking in education can serve as hubs for research, training, and collaboration among educators, policymakers, and industry experts. These hubs can drive innovation in education and serve as catalysts for educational reform efforts.
  • Policy Support: Advocacy for policy support at the national level is essential for mainstreaming design thinking in teacher education and curriculum development. Policymakers should prioritize investments in teacher training and educational infrastructure to support the integration of innovative methodologies in schools.

In conclusion, the application of design thinking in the context of teacher training holds immense potential for transforming educational practices and improving student outcomes in Morocco and beyond. By embracing innovation, collaboration, and continuous learning, educators can navigate the complexities of the education landscape and create inclusive, student-centered learning environments conducive to academic success and holistic development. A forthcoming article will detail the entire experience, including concrete examples drawn from the experiment.

Selected Bibliography

Site institutionnel du Haut-Commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc (hcp.ma)

الصفحة الرئيسية (men.gov.ma)

Portail de l’état civil | Maroc.ma

-Boutieri, C. (2016). Learning in Morocco: Language politics and the abandoned educational dream. Indiana University Press.

-Jaafari, T. (2019). Language debates and the changing context of educational policy in Morocco. Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective14(2), 9.

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Appendix 1: List of Stakeholders

Name of Stakeholder

Role in the Project Contact Information

School X

Local Partner

[Email Address] [Phone Number]

Ministry of Education Government Officer

[Email Address] [Phone Number]

Parents’ Association

Community Representative [Email Address] [Phone Number]
Local Educators Project Participants

[Email Address] [Phone Number]

Design Thinking Experts

External Consultants [Email Address] [Phone Number]







Appendix 2: Work Schedule


Project Stage

Start Date End Date Responsible

Kick-off meeting



Project Manager

Educator Training xxxxx xxxxx

Design Thinking Experts

Brainstorming session

xxxxx xxxxx

Project Team

Field Activities

xxxxx xxxxx Local Educators
Assessment and final report xxxxx xxxxx

Project Manager


Appendix 3: Assessment Tools

Pre-training questionnaire to assess educators’ knowledge and needs

Observation grid to assess participants’ engagement during the training

Semi-structured interview guide to gather feedback from educators after field activities

Appendix 4: Training Materials

PowerPoint Presentations on Design Thinking Principles

Facilitation Guides for Brainstorming Sessions and Hands-on Activities

Working Papers to Guide Educators in Applying Design Thinking Concepts in Their Classrooms

Appendix 5: Related Reports and Publications

Previous report on educational challenges in Morocco

Case studies on the application of design thinking in other educational contexts

Research articles on best practices in teacher education

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